Sampling Eight different samples were obtained, each corresponding to a different product the eight brands used in the study. The research proposed a model which argues that potential and actual tourist markets should be able to be identified based on their needs.
An ideal self-image incorporates attributes one aspires to have. Under conditions of high brand differentiation, consumers may acquire more knowledge about the benefits of the brand. These specific characteristics, however, may or may not hold consistent in other locales and it is suggested that tourism marketers invest the effort necessary to understand how innovators within their target markets see themselves.
Self-Congruity versus Functional Congruity: That is, self-congruity operates at a less conscious level biasing functional evaluations. Low involvement processing often may occur when the differences between brands are not perceived low brand differentiation.
Expressive versus Utilitarian Appeals: One part of self-concept is the notion of self-esteem, or the assessments of self-worth and self-respect Rosenberg Functional congruity is predictive of brand attitude.
The marketing researcher uses concepts of functional congruity and self-congruity through the use of multiattribute attitude models and self-image congruence models for brand positioning Johar and Sirgy The goal was set to obtain 70 respondents for each of the eight samples eight brandsa total of respondents.
Hence, it would be quite useful for marketing researchers to know under what circumstance self-congruity and functional congruity models should be used in brand positioning research. Shavitt ; Sirgy and Johar Journal of Business and Psychology 3 Tourist motivations and destination brand personality perceptions will influence perceptions of self-congruity in rela- tion to the destination, H2.
The retained items were: American Marketing Association Self-congruity is likely to be more predictive of brand attitude when brand conspicuousness is high rather than low. Thus, the direct impact of self-congruity on brand attitude is not as strong as functional congruity.
In one case, self-congruity theory did not hold, possibly due to the more "obligatory" nature of the volunteering task. Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues.
Journal of Business Research 13 June b: Reliability and factor analyses showed the following items to interrelate highly: The social visibility of the brand helps establish consensual beliefs regarding the stereotyped image of the brand user.
Data were collected on people's preferred volunteering organisation, their self-concept and their perceived image from eight volunteering organisations using an online self-completion survey.
The consumer may have referent points or standards e. This paper investigates (1) if, and to what extent, self-congruity theory is applicable in tourism, (2) to what extent travel and person characteristics explain the degree of self-congruity, and (3) how the operationalization of self-congruity affects the conclusions about whether self-congruity holds in tourism.
Results derived from a large-scale study of Swiss travelers indicate that.
University of Wollongong Research Online Faculty of Commerce - Papers (Archive) Faculty of Business Self-Congruity Theory: To What Extent Does it. Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory.
Tourism Management, 32(1), –[Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]), while another strand of research has covered the effect of celebrity endorsement in the tourism industry (van der Veen, van der Veen, R. (). Self-congruity theory postulates that consumers choose products or brands that have a user image that is consistent with their own self-image or self-concept (Sirgy, Sirgy, M.
J. (). Self-congruity: Toward a theory of personality and cybernetics. Sirgy () summed up the importance of self-concept in self- congruity theory like this: 1. Self-concept is of value to the individual, and behavior will be directed toward the protection and enhancement of self-concept.
2. The purchase, display, and use of goods communicate symbolic meaning to. Brand personality of tourist destinations: An application of self-congruity theory. The study also supports the self-congruity theory within the context of tourism destinations, indicating that both actual congruity and ideal congruity have a positive impact on behavioral intentions.
the application of brand personality to tourism.The application of self congruity theory in